Schematic diagram representing complexity of genomic data processing. Analysis and interpretation of biological data considers information at every level from the genome (total genetic content) to the proteome (total protein content) and transcriptome (total messenger RNA content) of the cell. The images numbered I-IV to the right of the diagram represent relevant examples of DNA (image I is base pair nucleotides); RNA (image II is a microarray showing levels of gene expression); and protein (image III is a structure of a single protein; image IV is a two dimensional gel electrophoresis showing separation of all proteins of a cell—each spot corresponds to a different protein chain)
Last year, news broke that human genome mapping had been accomplished, thanks to both the human genome project and a private genome research firm. Nevertheless, in recent years, the scientific community has seen the sequencing of whole genomes for many different species. A major milestone in the field of bioinformatics is the study of the growing genomic sequence data and the human genome project.
A new method to randomly sequence the whole genome was used in 1995 when Haemophilus influenzae was sequenced using the “shotgun” technique. This was the first free-living organism’s genome to be sequenced in its entirety. Soon after sequencing the genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycobacterium TB, researchers sequenced the genomes of the Yersinia pestis bacterium and more recently finished sequencing its genome. Following the sequencing and annotation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (a yeast), additional eukaryotic species including Caenorhabtidis elegans (a worm), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and Arabdopsis thaliana (thale cress) were sequenced and annotated (mustard weed). Many sequencing projects are under place, or about to start, in which different species’ sequencing will be completed, including: zebrafish, pufferfish, mouse, rat, and non-human primates. We’re gaining a lot of important information about the biological and medical world thanks to the information we’re discovering here. We will soon be able to identify and completely comprehend each human gene, as a consequence of our study comparing genomic and proteomic data.
Discovering novel drug targets at the same time as additional disease genes is found will happen in the near term because of the developing bioinformatic analysis of the human genome project. Bioinformatics will be used to discover susceptibility genes and explore the disease pathologies, making it possible to make breakthroughs in developing tailored therapies. Cancer targets were recently discovered by looking at gene expression patterns. Integrative genomic, pathological, and clinical data will be able to be assessed in clinical trials in the future. Doing so will be able to provide personalized genetic testing that will better educate people on their risk for adverse drug responses. Ultimately, pharmacogenomics is a revolutionary concept in healthcare that will see the emergence of personalised medicine. Patients will be able to carry genetic profiles for specific medicines to enable personalized treatment that is free of adverse effects.